Black Hoof was born in approximately 1720 “near salt water”, most likely in present day Florida. Migrating with other Shawnee to the Ohio Country in the middle of the 18th opponent of European and American expansion into the Indian territories of the Ohio Valley. Also known as Catahecasa or Quaskey, he was said to have fought against the whites in nearly every major battle from the French and Indian War (1756 – 1763) through the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Notably, he led a mixed force of Shawnee, Miami, Mingo, Delaware, Wyandot and Ottawa against George Rogers Clark at the Battle of Peckuwe in 1780.
Opposed to the British in the French and Indian conflict and the Americans during the Revolution and the Ohio Valley border wars of the post Revolutionary period, he became a strong supporter of the American government after signing the First Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Traveling to meet with President Thomas Jefferson in 1802, he sought United States support for setting up three Shawnee reservations in Ohio, recognition of the Shawnee as U.S. citizens, and conversion of the tribe to a farming lifestyle. He received assurances that the Shawnee would be allowed to remain in their Ohio homeland “So long as the rivers flow and the grass grows.”
A fit and active warrior past the age of 90, he was opposed to the policies of Tecumseh and the Prophet, and focused instead on removing his people from conflict during the War of 1812. At the signing of the Second Treaty of Greenville in 1814, he voiced support for the American cause and offered the services of his warriors as spies (scouts) and if necessary, to defend the American settlements in Ohio from an invasion by Crown forces. The majority of the Shawnee followed his lead as primary chief of the nation.
The success of the Shawnee in becoming citizen farmers of Ohio under the leadership of Black Hoof continued until the repressive policies of the Andrew Jackson administration resulted in removal of all the remaining Native tribes from the state. After ensuring the orderly transfer of his people to Kansas territory during 1828 – 1831, Black Hoof returned to his cabin near Wapakoneta, Ohio, where he passed away at the age of 111. His final resting place is in the Black Hoof Memorial Cemetery in St. Johns, Ohio.
The Kansas Land Act resulted in removal of Native Peoples from Kansas in 1860. The Shawnee Nation of three federally recognized tribes, The Absentee Shawnee, The Eastern Shawnee and The Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, now resides in the state of Oklahoma.